You might not want to think about this, but over 3500 species of cockroaches live on this planet.
你可能壓根不想要想到這個，但有超過 3500 種蟑螂，在這個星球上生活
The good news?
Only about 30 of those species have adapted to live around humans.
其中僅有 30 種，已适應能以人類為居
The bad news?
30 species of cockroaches can live around us!
有 30 種蟑螂能和我們為居！
Roaches are one of the most common pests in the US.
So it's no surprise that humans are always trying to kill them.
But no matter how many times we stomp them,
squash them, and bomb them with toxic chemicals, these pesky pests always seem to pop up time and time again.
So what's going on?
Let's take a closer look at the roach you probably know better than you'd like.
Aka, the American Cockroach.
But this name is misleading.
This guy is actually from Africa, not America.
It made its way to the US by infesting boats in the 16th century, and it's been spreading to almost every corner in the world ever since.
它們 16 世紀時群居跟着船隻沿路來到美國，自此，就在世界各個角落散播開來
It turns out, it's one of the largest species of cockroach around.
But that's not the only big thing about it.
New research has revealed that it has a massive genome.
One of the largest of any studied insect.
And may of these genes are exactly what make this roach a master survivor.
Let's start with the genes associated with something called Chemoreception.
That's how roaches smell and taste their environment.
Turns out they're actually way better at sniffing out and eating food than most other insects.
The American roach has 154 olfactory receptors for smell, and 544 gustatory receptors for taste.
美洲蟑螂有 154 個嗅覺感官以及 544 個供嘗味的味覺感官
More than any other insect on the planet.
As a result, these cockroaches are not picky eaters.
Sure, they like cheese, meat and sugar like the rest of us, but they'll also go for things like cardboard, book bindings, human toenails, rotting meat, blood, excrement, and even each other.
That's right, these roaches have been known to eat other dead or crippled cockroaches, all in the name of survival.
It sounds gross, but this diverse diet makes it easy to find a meal just about anywhere, even if it's poisonous to most animals.
This roach has a bunch of genes called Cytochrome P450s, which help it withstand poisonous chemicals, like peppermint.
這種蟑螂有許多叫做 Cytochrome P450s 的基因 會幫助它們自己承受有毒化學物質，像是薄荷油
These genes code for detoxification enzymes, which keep the insect safe.
On top of that, this roach has a super-strong immune system that seeks out and kills harmful microbes and fungi, making the most unsanitary environment look like a five-start hotel to the American cockroach.
Not gross enough yet?
Well consider this.
Cockroaches can live nearly a week without their heads.
Yeah, that's not a myth.
They don't have a highly pressurized network of blood vessels like humans, so they don't bleed out.
Instead, their necks actually seal off the opening.
They can't regenerate a whole head, but roaches to have an impressive set of regenerative superpowers.
For up to the first two years of its life, the American roach goes through a series of regenerative molts as it matures into an adult.
During a single molt stage, it can replace lost limbs.
And over a series of molts, it can regrow antennae and even its eyes.
Roaches may be hard to kill, but there's an easy way to keep them clear of your kitchen.
A roach just won't survive in unsanitary conditions, it actually enjoys it.
Its heightened senses mean it actually relishes rotting food.
So, store food in airtight containers.
Cover trash bins, and keep your basement dry.
It might also be smart to plug holes in your walls, unused electrical outlets, and especially drains, since get this, roaches can use your plumbing to climb up from sewers into your bathroom sink.
It might not eliminate the risk entirely, but it can't hurt, and it will certainly make you feel better.
However, we can't promise it will keep them out of your nightmares.